Exercise 1.35

Show that the golden ratio $$\phi$$ (the section Tree Recursion) is a fixed point of the transformation $$x \mapsto 1 + \frac{1}{x}$$, and use this fact to compute $$\phi$$ by means of the fixed-point/2 function.

Exercise 1.36

Modify fixed-point/2 so that it prints the sequence of approximations it generates, using io:format as shown in exercise 1.22. Then find a solution to $$x^x = 1000$$ by finding a fixed point of $$x \mapsto \frac{log(1000)}{log(x)}$$. (Use Erlang's math:log function, which computes natural logarithms.) Compare the number of steps this takes with and without average damping. (Note that you cannot start fixed-point/2 with a guess of 1, as this would cause division by $$log(1) = 0 $$.)

Exercise 1.37

a. An infinite continued fraction is an expression of the form

$$ \begin{align} f= \frac{N_1}{D_1 + \frac{N_2}{D_2 + \frac{N_3}{D_3 + \cdots}}} \end{align} $$

As an example, one can show that the infinite continued fraction expansion with the $$N_i$$ and the $$D_i$$ all equal to 1 produces $$frac{1}{\phi}$$, where $$\phi$$ is the golden ratio (described in the section Tree Recursion]). One way to approximate an infinite continued fraction is to truncate the expansion after a given number of terms. Such a truncation -- a so-called k-term finite continued fraction -- has the form

$$ \begin{align} \frac{N_1}{D_1 + \frac{N_2}{\ddots + \frac{N_K}{D_K}}} \end{align} $$

Suppose that n and d are functions of one argument (the term index $$i$$) that return the $$N_i$$ and $$D_i$$ of the terms of the continued fraction. Define a function cont-frac/3 such that evaluating (cont-frac n d k) computes the value of the $$k$$-term finite continued fraction. Check your function by approximating $$\frac{1}{\phi}$$ using

(cont-frac (lambda (i) 1.0)
           (lambda (i) 1.0)

for successive values of k. How large must you make k in order to get an approximation that is accurate to 4 decimal places?

b. If your cont-frac/3 function generates a recursive process, write one that generates an iterative process. If it generates an iterative process, write one that generates a recursive process.

Exercise 1.38

In 1737, the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler published a memoir De Fractionibus Continuis, which included a continued fraction expansion for $$e - 2$$, where $$e$$ is the base of the natural logarithms. In this fraction, the $$N_i$$ are all 1, and the $$D_i$$ are successively $$1, 2, 1, 1, 4, 1, 1, 6, 1, 1, 8, \cdot $$. Write a program that uses your cont-frac/3 function from exercise 1.37 to approximate $$e$$, based on Euler's expansion.

Exercise 1.39

A continued fraction representation of the tangent function was published in 1770 by the German mathematician J.H. Lambert:

$$ \begin{align} \tan r = \frac{r}{1 - \frac{r^2}{3 - \frac{r^2}{5 - \ddots}}} \end{align} $$

where $$x$$ is in radians. Define a function (tan-cf x k) that computes an approximation to the tangent function based on Lambert's formula. k specifies the number of terms to compute, as in exercise 1.37.